Massachusetts Regional Emergency Shipping Service Regionalization

Regionalizing emergency services is a hot topic in many Massachusetts counties. Grants are awarded, committees are formed and studies are conducted. Why all the time and effort, if you simply look back at the rest of the country, seems like a worthwhile trend?
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In fact, Massachusetts is the only state that has generally not regionalized its dispatch services. It has taken years, investment, and dedication to get the job done.
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Case in point: Oregon State has worked for 16 years regionalizing the dispatch of its state police departments, but it was worth it. There are now two command centers that act as the primary point of contact for all state police needs across the state – instead of 26 taxpayers & # 39; the money is saved, the economy is being weighed down, and the updated technologies are being enjoyed nationwide.
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These are new topics from around the country – taxpayer savings, efficient shipment processes, more reliable high-tech technologies. According to Thomas Dubas, who runs the dispatch center in Lackawanna County, Pa., And was hired to advise on the proposal for regionalization, “The level of expertise, the level of training and the level of service that a regional center can provide is just so much more responsible for communities,” he said. So why didn’t Massachusetts follow that?
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Not that ideas were not presented. In the last three years, Essex, Plymouth and Worcester counties have made proposals for regionalization of ambulance services .
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And with any Massachusetts proposal, there was disagreement. Those opposed to combining services, possible layoffs, lack of attendance at night facilities to greet visitors, and varying degrees of dispatchers’ familiarity with the venues included as the main reasons for the veto.
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It is not that they do not see the financial and procedural benefits of such a project, but those who oppose do not want to rush into something without looking at it from every angle.
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The reason for the regionalization of the emergency dispatch service should not be solely in finance. Obviously the human element has a job doing the dispatching staff. A great deal of the work that dispatchers do now is getting through and supervising late-night activities. If cities combined shipping efforts, those high-touch elements would be eliminated.
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However, it is difficult to ignore the hundreds of thousands of taxpayer dollars that could be saved, especially at a time when agencies are expected to work less with more, and budget cuts are forcing each department to watch more carefully than ever before.
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And when you get down to it right now, almost every other country already combines emergency management – and successfully. If nothing else, then there are plenty of case studies that will show us a way to regionalize emergency dispatch for our own success.
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But Libra has faced severe regulatory backlash. President Donald Trump has said Facebook may be required to apply for a bank license to issue it, while some US lawmakers have been planning the company’s digital currency plans. Central bankers have also spilled cold water on the idea, with Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell saying the project should be stopped until regulators’ concerns are addressed.
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The Elliptic boss said that while Facebook is “catching fire”, many other companies are exploring asset-backed virtual currencies. “It’s out of the box,” he said. “People are now thinking about it and what is the right way to do it.” Even central bankers are floating the idea, with Bank of England Governor Mark Carney proposing a digital reserve currency and China’s central bank claiming it is close to releasing its own virtual tokens.

Moving forward, Elliptic is opening offices in Singapore and Japan as part of a push to the Asian market. Japan is an example of a country showing more breakthroughs in the industry than others, Smith said, with “major banks” examining ways to provide cryptocurrency services to their customers. The company said revenue in Asia has increased tenfold in the last 12 months alone.


How Massachusetts General Law 93A Affects Internet Businesses

Massachusetts General Act 93A, called the Consumer Protection Practice Regulation, is designed to protect those consumers who are otherwise unaware of their legal rights. Mass. Gen. Act 93A . As originally created, 93A did not create a private lawsuit, an issue that was quickly resolved by the Legislature, and now consumers and businesses can use 93A as a basis for exercising their rights through a private lawsuit.
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Unlike some other states, the Massachusetts Consumer Statute provides for an explicit, not implied, right to sue companies they believe have been the victims of fraudulent or fraudulent acts. Consumer protection is often easy to spot with standard companies, such as: bait & switch advertising, defect detection, pricing, faulty warranty requirements, and adverse return / refund policies.
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It becomes much more difficult to determine when a consumer law requirement based on mass law 93A exists when a business is only involved in e-commerce, and especially when that business is not located in the state.
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When evaluating a potential consumer protection claim, it is important to keep in mind that the necessary elements differ for the business and for the consumer. The consumer must follow certain procedural and substantive requirements set out in section 9 of the Act.
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Among other elements, Section 9 requires a 30-day claim letter showing that they are in fact a consumer, unfair or deceptive practice and showing harm.
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Businesses, especially Internet businesses, differ substantially in their required elements. Section 11 sets out the requirements for a 93A business request and requires that a business issue:

  1. That they are “business” – (involved in the conduct of any trade or trade);
  2. That the defendant participated in an “unfair competition method” or that the defendants’ actions were “unfair” or “deceptive;”
  3. That these actions took place primarily and mainly within Massachusetts (the burden is on the defendant to rebut this presumption as a defense); i
  4. That these actions resulted in the business plaintiff’s loss of money or property, real or personal, for the purpose of causing damages for the money; or
  5. That these actions “may result in such loss of money or property.”

Mass. Gen. Act 93A
Due to the openness of the internet and the anonymity involved, it can be extremely difficult to show that a particular method was unfair or deceptive.
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It is more difficult, especially in the context of an online business, to show that a particular act results in damage or loss. As online transactions vary in amount and as the market continues to expand, it can be extremely difficult to portray actual loss, or even the potential for loss.
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As each element must be present before the petition is filed, the cautious representative will investigate the facts of the case before initiating petition 93A. Without properly placed elements, most judges will dismiss the case at the earliest opportunity.

In addition, Internet businesses present unique jurisdictional issues that may confuse the use of 93A for consumer protection purposes. For there to be any hope that 93A will apply to an online business, a “dishonest or deceptive act” must occur primarily or significantly within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. When neither the deceptive / dishonest act nor the harm is caused in MA, the consumer protection claim will be barred under 93A, even if the victim is a resident or place of business of Massachusetts. In the recent case of Massachusetts Superior Court of Fillmore v. Leasecomm Corp. , a judge dismissed a consumer protection claim filed by a Massachusetts company against a California company because allegedly deceptive sales tactics and unfair contracts were used in California. Fillmore v. Leasecomm Corp. , 18 Mass. L. Rptr. 560, 2004 WL 3091642 (Mass. Super. Ct. Nov. 15, 2004). In Fillmore , plaintiffs’ submissions failed at the center of gravity; test applied for jurisdictional purposes, so the claim was denied. When deciding whether or not to file a Massachusetts consumer protection claim, it is best to first look at the act, damages, and jurisdiction. The more that happened in Massachusetts jurisdiction, the more likely it was that the claim could continue. However, Massachusetts courts are considered favored Massachusetts companies when all the elements, including jurisdictions, are met.
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If the contract were to be performed in Massachusetts and the damage occurred in Massachusetts, then the competent element would be fulfilled and the court would look to the applicant, as did the Massachusetts Court of Appeals at Auto Shine Car Wash Sys. v. Nice Nice Car Wash, Inc. At Auto Shine, parties often met in Massachusetts, and misrepresentation originated in Massachusetts. The court ruled in favor of the plaintiff for double damages because there was a deliberate and willful violation of the mass of General Law ch. 93A 58 Mass. The application. Ct. 685 (Mass Appeals, Ct. 2003).

Filing a consumer protection claim represents a significantly increased level of evidence and jurisdiction when your client is a business entity. Keep an eye out for the consequences and potential wasted time you can use when applying without completing each element. Just because Massachusetts provides an explicit right for businesses to file claims does not mean that judges will be willing to ignore even the smallest discrepancies in demanding claims.

Lottery ticket collecting

Americans love lotteries, and collectors like to collect lottery tickets. The chance of a sudden fortune with a small cost of money is a tempting lure. Lottery winners and winners include blue-collar workers who experience rapturous rapture and white-collar workers who enjoy the thrill of victory. But the old lottery ticket with a historical association has a special appeal for collectors.

Buying a bet for autographs where they are or for a meaningful relationship is an attraction that attracts collectors. Authorized lotteries in America began as early as 1744 with the Massachusetts Government Lottery. Tickets for the Massachusetts Government Lottery are signed by Samuel Watts and other lottery directors. Twenty-five thousand tickets were sold at thirty shillings each. The odds of winning were about 22% and the initial draw was held at Faneuil Hall. The success of this lottery inspired other colonies to run their lotteries.

The lottery was organized by Benjamin Franklin to raise money to buy an army arsenal. Collectors are fervently seeking these tickets because of their association with one of the founders of America. In November 1776, the Continental Congress approved the US Lottery to fund the Revolutionary War. Early American history collectors fervently search for historical documents such as American Lottery ticket lottery tickets.

One of the most famous early American lotteries was the 1768 Mountain Road Lottery operated by George Washington. Collectors are fervently seeking this ticket as it carries George Washington's autograph, a feature that has attracted ticket buyers. George Washington's autograph lottery tickets were recently auctioned for more than $ 15,000. However, prints of the Mountain Road Washington Lottery autograph can be purchased for a fraction of the original and displayed with the same visual effect.

Lottery ticket collecting may not provide the fantasy of winning an incredible amount of money, but collectors still experience the excitement and joy of gaining historic treasure.

The origin of email – how it all began

Email, better known as Email, has changed the face of communication over the decades. Email can be defined as a method for composing, sending, storing and receiving messages through electronic communications systems. The word "email" is used both as a noun and a verb, and refers to all Internet email systems based on SMTP, X.400 systems and intranet systems.

How did it all begin?

Before the Internet, there was an email: it was probably the most important tool in the development of the Internet in the late 80's. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology first exposed CTSS (Compatible Time Sharing System) in 1961. CTSS allowed many concurrent users to log on to IBM 7094 from remote dial-up machines and store network files on a floppy disk. This incredible development has encouraged users to share information in different ways. The birth of email was in 1965, when more computer users who shared a time period began communicating remotely and electronically.

Although the complete history and exact dates are rather murky in detail, the first systems to have basic email content were Q32 and System Development Corporation and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. By 1966, email had expanded rapidly and had become an online mail, allowing users to forward the email between different computers.

ARPANET is undoubtedly a good contributor to email development. Historical reports say there have been experiments on intersystem email transmissions just after it was created in 1969. Ray Tomlinson, a developer who developed a time-sharing system called TENEX, was the first person to discover that different hosts could be different using the @ character to separate the user name and their machine. Up until 1971, when the actual email was discovered, machines could only send messages to users within their own system.

Email has grown in popularity through ARPANET and over time, email has become a basic Internet communication technology.

Ray Tomlinson – Detect Online Email

The first person to discover the ability to send an inbox between different computers over the network, Ray Tomlinson is the person to thank for the groundbreaking outcome of "email." Although there have been many cases where messages were passed between different users within the same computer and made quite an impression among users, the real email as we know it today started with the first online email.

Ray Tomlinson was involved in a group that developed a time-sharing system called TENEX running on PDP-10 digital computers, working on network control protocols for both TENEX and CPYNET (an experimental file transfer program). While making improvements to SNDMSG, a local mail program available to users at the time, Ray Tomlinson realized that he could easily integrate code from CPYNET to SNDMSG and transmit messages via a network connection to remote mailboxes. as well as attach messages to local mailbox files.

Including SNDMSG and CPYNET features, it was able to develop a networking program and test it on two machines literally side by side. He used the @ sign to distinguish different machines in a very simple way, such as "from: me @ thismachine to: you @ thatmachine". After testing the program several times, sending a message back and forth between two computers, he sent a general message to his group explaining how to send the message online. And so the first online e-mail was created.

Home Electrical Wiring – How to Find the Best Electrician for Apartments in Your Area

If you need some electrical installation in your home, you will probably need the help of an electrician or a home electrical supplier.

Electric contractors operate electricians – If you hire an electrician, they are likely to go through an electrical supplier. Electricians must work through a supplier who manages the insurance and licensing of their electricians.

Look for online reviews from electrical wiring experts – Before deciding who to work with, look online for ratings and reviews from various electrical service companies. If you are looking for wiring or electrical work to be done indoors or in your home, look for a home electrician or electrician who has experience in home wiring.

Call your local electricians for quotes – To find a cheap price and the best electrician in your area, after you have compiled a list of electricians or electric contractors with good online reviews, call quotes or offers to make sure you get a discount or low price for the service being performed.

Make sure that the electrician is licensed and approved by the state – States individually manage the licensing of electricians and residential electricians. Therefore, an electrician licensed in California cannot work in Texas until he has met the requirements for electricians through the state of Texas.

Check out the state government website – Each state maintains its list of licensed electricians and contractors either on their state website or the information is available online. You should be able to find them by simply searching online. For example, to find licensed electricians in Massachusetts, you can search for "licensed electricians on Massachusetts site: .gov" by listing: .gov, you may only display government pages.

Watuppa Fishing Pond: Fall River, MA

The Watuppa Pond is one of Massachusetts' largest water bodies, a staple in the southeastern part of the state. The Watuppa pond is divided into two areas, North Watuppa and South Watuppa. North Watuppa provides drinking water from the Fall River area, which is why the area is not open to fishing. However, South Watuppa is a local fishing spot where numerous tournaments are held throughout the year. South Watuppa is a great place to catch largemouth bass, compasses and (my favorite) tiger muskies.

South Watuppa has several spots that you hunt from the coast. However, most people fishing this pond use a boat. It is located next to Jefferson Ship in Fall River (N 41.673938, W -71.140101). This is probably the most commonly used and easily accessible way to enter the pond. As one of the largest bodies of water in Massachusetts, there are many good places to fish. Today I'm going to go over some good spots that have produced some pretty nice fish for me.

If you leave the boat ramp and head directly to the other end of the pond, but just before you reach the other end, you will see a little peninsula just to your right. This peninsula creates a cove on one side. This was a great spot for largemouth bass. I used many techniques in the area, from jerk baits to fairy tales and soft plastic. Many times I will use the Texas Ragetail Anaconda rig, a 10-inch worm that has incredible action at this site. Expect to land some sleeves in the brush just off the coast.

There is another great area if you are heading directly to the right from the boat ramp. You will notice the pond narrowing, but trolling this area has produced some very nice tiger muskies. When fishing for tiger musks, you must ensure that they are properly positioned. You need to make sure you have a steel leader and some pretty heavy line. You can use some 25 lb line monofilament or, my favorite, a 20 / 30lb Spiderwire Stealth Braid test. I usually have one of my favorite swimsuits attached and I caught some monster muskies in this part of Watuppa.

The Watuppa Pond is a great place to spend a day on the water. The pond is quite large so you never have to worry about being overwhelmed by a crowd of people fishing in the same area. From my experience, I was much more fortunate in the southern part of South Watuppe. Still, there are a lot of great places to fish here, and I'm sure you will introduce nice sized fish.

Mercy Otis Warren, a second-class citizen

America was settled by Europeans primarily from the United Kingdom who came seeking religious freedom, economic opportunity and opportunity to found new communities and social organizations and from slaves. In 161919 the first slaves were brought by Dutch merchants.

Life was not easy. The colonists (both Europeans and slaves) faced Indian rapists and diseases such as malaria and typhoid. Life in the colonies was different from living abroad in other ways. Many children died in infancy; the adults were dying leaving their children to grow up with relatives, family friends or foster parents. Marriage and the creation of pastoral families were common.

It was a departure from the norm the colonists were accustomed to in Europe where the nuclear family prevailed. (Steoff, 2003, p. 57)

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the roles of men and women were established by the parents and religious leaders of their communities. Colonial men worked in crafts or owned businesses such as farms. Colonial women used to spin, weave and sew dresses; cooked; cleaned; gardener; wash and iron; chopped wood and raised and educated their children.

Women were expected to obey their fathers, husbands or other male relatives and become wives and mothers. (Micklos, 2013, pp. 5 – 12)

Nevertheless, these differences and difficulties have led some women to stand out from the rest.

Mercy Otis Warren was born into a wealthy family in West Barnstable, Massachusetts. Mercy was not a typical girl even during the times she lived. Her father was a travel lawyer and a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives bringing home the latest political news from Boston. His two oldest children Mercy and her brother James (Jemmy) were found by colonists & # 39; the conflicts with the UK are fascinating.

Like her sisters, Mercy was educated at home. Mr Otis, however, believed that girls, as well as boys, should be taught to read and write in order for the two eldest children, Mercy and Jemmy, to be taught at home by the minister. Mercy adored reading and history. Her favorite book was Sir Walter Raleigh History of the world.

When he was old, Jemmy enrolled at Harvard. Mercy stayed home because women were not allowed to go to college. She could, however, devour the books Jemmy brought home, especially the writings of the radical philosopher John Locke.

Locke wrote about freedom and the natural rights of man. He also wrote about the social contract. Trustees, he believes, have created governments to protect their lives, liberties and prosperity. When the government threatened these rights, it violated the social contract. This meant that the people could change or even establish a government. (Woelfle, 2012, p. 5)

Although the colonists created new communities and social organizations, they regarded themselves as subjects of Great Britain. Influenced by the ideas of Locke and the Enlightenment, the colonists began to question this relationship, arguing that they should have greater control over their local government. (Steoff, 2003, p. 96)

When Jemmy graduated from college, Mercy attended his graduation ceremony and graduation parties. It was there that she met her friend Jemmy and her future husband James Warren. He was a farmer and like her father, a politician. James was not afraid of smart women. They married and raised five sons together on a farm in Plymouth, Massachusetts.

Mercy raised children and ran a family farm, but in her spare time, she secretly wrote and published poems and plays.

While life in Plymouth was quiet and busy for the Warren family, Samuel Adams and the Sons of Liberty rebelled over taxes levied on colonists by the British government in nearby Boston.

Neighboring communities like Plymouth joined the protests that eventually laid the foundations for the American Revolution.

Women like Mercy who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment and the colonists & # 39; protests, they would soon join their husbands, fathers and brothers in the fight to create a new republic. Women visited military camps and sewed clothes, nursed and fed soldiers. They spied on the Patriots and even wore men's clothing and fought numerous battles.

Warren's home became the meeting place for revolutionaries and intellectuals. They set out there plans for a Continental Congress that forced Mercy to call her home "One Freedom Square."

Mercy participated proudly and courageously in the planning sessions.

During this period she began regular correspondence with Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and Abigail Adams, whose husband John became the second president of United United. These friendships lasted most of her life.

Mercy continued to write and publish political songs and plays that were in favor of the rebellion and revolution during the Revolutionary War.

She used the pseudonym Fidelia for these songs and plays that were deliberately anti-British. At Model Celebration, sirens and other sea creatures enjoy sipping British tea during the 1773 Boston Tea Party.

The British did not know who wrote the works or Mercy would have been hanged for treason.

In 1775 James became General James Warren, but after the war brought tragedy to the Mercy family. In 1783, Jemmy was struck by lightning and he died. Mercy and James lost their son Charles in 1785 to tuberculosis. Another son, Winslow, joined the army and was killed in the Indian raid in 1791. 1800 died of fever.

Warren was spotted in the couch A History of the Rise, Progress, and Interruption of the American Revolution Interspersed with Biographical, Political, and Moral Observations published in 1805, when she was seventy-seven. She could sign the manuscript, "Mrs. Mercy Warren of Plymouth, Massachusetts." It is considered the first history of the conflict between America and Britain.

Colonial widows, unlike most women, enjoyed a life of independence. Many had the experience of helping their husbands with their family or business and when their spouse died, they took over day-to-day operations.

Mercy Otis Warren was no different. Through all her personal tragedies, Mercy continued to write, manage a farm and support a new nation, the United States of America.

Mercy died in 1814. Mercy and James were buried in Old Burial Hill in Plymouth, Massachusetts.


Micklos, John. The brave women and children of the American Revolution. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, Inc. 2009

Steoff, Rebecca. Colonial life. NY: Marshall Cavendish, 2003.

Woeffle, Gretchen. Write, Mercy! Otis Warren's Secret Life of Mercy. Honesdale, PA: Calking Creek Books, 2012.

Johnny Clem – Bob of the Shiloh

John Lincoln Clem (1851 – 1937).

In June 1861, a young man in Newark, Ohio, watched Union troops march on his city and, despite his younger years, wanted to join and fight in the Civil War. The boy's name was John Joseph Klem.

Earlier, Klem tried to enlist in the 3rd Ohio Infantry, but because of age and small size, young Klem was rejected. Johnny Clem (he would be known by this name and spelling, he would later be called Johnny Shiloh, and he officially changed his name to John Lincoln Clem) was persistent with a desire to join the military, so he went along with the 22nd Massachusetts while marching Newark.

22. Massachusetts made Clema his mascot and drummer. He was provided with a shotgun and a small uniform, and Massachusetts unit officers teamed up to pay Johnny a regular soldier thirteen dollars a month. Johnny wasn't even 10 years old, but now he was a drummer (but not necessarily a good one!), Unofficially fighting for the Union.

Two years later, Johnny Clem will be allowed to enroll. On May 1, 1863, Johnny officially became a musician at Company C, 22nd Michigan. The nurse describes Johnny Clem; "it was a fair and beautiful child … about twelve years old, but very little for his age. He was only thirty inches tall and weighed about sixty pounds." Johnny Clem was one of the youngest soldiers for either the Union Army or the Confederacy in the Civil War. Johnny would go on to glory in the Civil War and make an army career.

Johnny Clem was also commonly known as "Johnny Shiloh." The story goes that young Clem was at the Battle of Shiloh in 1862 and his drum was broken by an artillery projectile, and then he took a gun for combat. This story was very popular and in the end the poem, play and song were all called "The Drummer's Chess Boy". Clem at Shiloh, however, is a questionable history.

There were others who claimed to be the real "Shiloh boy drummer," but a survey by the National Park Service found Clem most likely. Clem's service says he was in 3 Ohio, 22 Michigan and 22 Wisconsin. The problem is that 3rd Ohio was not in Shiloh and 22nd Michigan and 22nd Wisconsin were not organized until after Shiloh. At this time, Johnny Clem was not yet officially a soldier, but was a young man dressed as a soldier trying to play the drum. He would not be assigned to any unit that was in Shiloh. This writer will leave it to the reader to decide if Johnny Clem is also Johnny Shiloh. We will see that there is no reason to doubt the courage of Johnny Clem.

At Chickamauga on September 20, 1863, Johnny Clem rode in front of artillery battle on artillery caisson, carrying a rifle. As the battle progressed, Union troops had to retreat, and during this the Confederate colonel encountered young Klem and demanded his surrender. Johnny Clem stopped as if obeying, but then he lifted his rifle at his enemy officer and fired, wounding him.

While teaching in Johnny's feats, General George H. Thomas promoted Johnny to the rank of spearman. The newspaper told the story of Johnny Clem and he gained celebrity status, becoming known as the "Drummer Boy of Chickamauga."

In October 1863, Johnny Clem was described in detail as a train guard in Georgia when he was captured by the Confederate cavalry. Johnny was released two months later during a prisoner exchange, but Confederate newspapers used his capture to ridicule the Union with this barge; "what a painful Yankee is chased when they have to send their babies to fight us."

Johnny Clem assigned to General Thomas; staff as a mounted editor in January 1864. During the Atlanta campaign, young Johnny was wounded twice. On September 19, 1864, he was discharged from the army. President Grant appointed Johnny Clem at West Point, but Johnny spent his youth and time as a soldier. A lack of formal education prevented him from passing the West Point entrance exam.

President Grant again advocated for Johnny Clem, appointing him in 1871 as the second lieutenant of the 24th Infantry, a unit of black soldiers. Johnny thus began his second military term. He was promoted to the rank of colonel in the Kvarner Corps. Clem could long remain on active duty to become the last Civil War veteran still on duty in the armed forces.

John Lincoln Clem ended his military career when he retired in 1916. Upon his retirement, by special act of Congress, he made him Major General John Clem. He passed away at the age of 85 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

Civil war history is incomplete unless it includes the Johnny Clem story.

Top Accounting Schools on the East Coast

While still in high school, you should start looking for good schools for an accounting degree. Even if you have a mediocre GPA, you can still get into good accounting schools. If you live in the eastern part of the country, then you have numerous opportunities for a good accounting school.

The east coast of America ranges from Maine to parts of Florida. East Coast & # 39; refers to the Northeast and also Mid-Atlantic, which include New York, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Maryland, Delaware, Washington, DC, Vermont, Pennsylvania, and sometimes Virginia, North Carolina, and West Virginia.

The eastern parts of the country have one of the very old but very famous business and accounting schools. These schools have years of good results to help them and students after graduation are in good companies. She can even do training during her master's degree to hold tuition fees and gain experience.

East Coast schools include schools such as Boston College, William and Mary College, Wellesley College, Swarthmore College, Haverford College, New York and Washington College. Of course, there are others.

If you consider a more natural setting, then you can choose from schools in Maine, Massachusetts, Vermond, Connecticut and NY, New Jersey, as well as places like Virginia and Pennsylvania. But in case you prefer city life, then opt for colleges in the NY City metropolitan area, Philadelphia Boston and Washington DC

Other schools are located in places with severe winter conditions. If you love winters, then you can opt for places with milder winter conditions, such as the northern parts of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Washington DC, North Carolina and West Virginia. Schools located in places with snowy winters include New York Upstate and New England.

So, for those of you who want to study accounting at the top universities on the East Coast of America, there are many options to look at. And of course, each of these universities offers countless courses and degrees that you would like to pursue. It is definitely for those who stay on the East Coast these universities are among the best universities in the world, and studying at such a university can certainly be an honor.

How to Download the Green Line |

Most everyone who goes to Red Sox games at Fenway Park have two recommendations for getting there: don't drive and take a "T".

Driving to and parking at Fenway Park can be done, but it can be a struggle to find affordable parking close to the playground, and even if you do, getting out will take some time. In some places you are at the mercy of someone who has parked you, never well. If you are unfamiliar with the area, you will be much better off using the "T," as Bostonians call it.

The Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority (MBTA) operates several subway lines through the city of Boston itself, and they are among the cleaner and more efficient major city transit systems. There are four colored subway lines; Red (for the crimson colors of Harvard University where it originally graduated), blue (for water on the nearby shore and Boston Harbor), and orange (for Orange Street in the middle, now called Washington Street) all merge with the green line at some point. which in turn takes drivers to Kenmore Station, a short stroll across Turnsake, Massachusetts to Fenway Park. The green line is so named because it runs through the "Emerald Necklace" section of Boston.

The green line has four separate routes: B, C, D and E, all ending at different stations. All but E stop at Kenmore; train E turns north from Kenmore but stops at the Prudential Center, which is a dozen blocks to the coast. The D route of the Green Line stops at Fenway Station; this is not terribly far from the playground, but it is not an actual exit from Fenway Park. This may be to the benefit of Yankees fans to wear them out before the game.

You should use T for any other reason than to share the whole Fenway experience. On game days, the Green Line becomes crowded with Red Sox fans heading to Fenway, and after games, trains become similarly filled with sardines. But it didn't matter to Red Sox fans, many of whom were smart enough to stay lean to fit in those Grandstand seats. A member of the Red Sox Nation has no problem sharing a small space with a colleague in good standing. It is also the reason for the popularity of local compounds near Fenway like Cask-N-Flagon; fans need a place to wait for crowded trains after the game.

If you are looking for more spacious alternatives, you could use the E-route on a nice day if you don't like walking, which will leave you with a crowd that just doesn't know how to use E. Or you can use the Orange Line and get off at Back Bay Station – this is a few blocks away east of the rating center. It's a hike, but you can see a good city by the way. There used to be a "Shawft Ruggles" driving riders from the Ruggles station on the Orange Line to Fenway, but this is no longer active as of this writing. You can still use the bus from there, but you have to pay for it (or use a "Charlie card").

The T train ride is $ 2 as of this writing; it's cheaper for seniors and college students, and for kids 11 and under driving with an adult. So, taking two trains to the park and back is $ 8 for an adult, plus all you can pay for parking and parking (somewhere around $ 7). Given that some nearby places charge more than $ 30 for the parking and traffic you will come across, Boston may be one baseball city where public transportation is a better option than anywhere else, even more than Chicago, Washington or New York.

Not many people drive to Fenway Park. They just don't. So remember, don't drive and use T.

Fireworks and child injuries

Although fireworks can be nice, it can cause serious injury and even death. Although fireworks are banned in Massachusetts, it does not prevent some people from bringing them out of state. The risk that fireworks presents to children is high; Common injuries sustained by fireworks include burns, eye injuries, cuts and even amputations.

If your child is burned, cut, or has vision problems as a result of a fire accident, you may need to contact an Andover child injury lawyer to discuss legal options.


The most common injury a child experiences while handling fireworks is a burn injury. Many people find flashes harmless and give them to children to play with; however, educators can reach 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit. If a child is not properly monitored or does not know how to deal with a spark, he or she may end up with third degree burns.

If your child is burned, you need to decide if he or she can be treated at home or needs hospital care. Burns that are reddish can be treated with lubricant and bandages. However, if your baby's skin is charred or blown out, you should call an ambulance immediately or go to an ambulance.

Eye injuries

Eye injuries can occur when debris or sparks enter your child's eyes, and can cause bottle rockets or even sparks. Because your eyes are so sensitive, you should seek medical attention immediately to avoid long-term damage or even blindness. Avoid rubbing or flushing the baby's eye and do not try to remove any protruding objects from the eyes.

Other injuries

People enjoy the beauty and excitement of fireworks, and do not want to think about the possible negative consequences when they do not adhere to safety precautions. Fireworks can also lead to tearing (cuts) and even amputations. If your child is hit by fireworks, evaluate the injury. If the cut is deep, try to stop the bleeding and seek medical attention the right way.

If your child's finger, hand, or other limb is rejected by fireworks, you should immediately try to stop the bleeding and call an ambulance. Ask someone to look for your child's missing limb and store it in ice, if found.

After the fireworks accident

If a child is injured as a result of negligence or misconduct on the part of the other party, you may be entitled to file a lawsuit against a fire accident. An experienced Andover child injury lawyer can help you explain the legal options and, if necessary, help you file a Massachusetts child injury claim against a responsible party.

American History – The Colonial Period

The following article provides some simple, informative tips to help you have a better experience with the colonial period.

The colonial period


Most of the settlers who came to America in the 17th century were English, but there were also Dutch, Swedish and German people in the middle region, several French Huguenots in South Carolina and elsewhere, slaves from Africa, primarily in the South, and the dispersal of Spaniards , Italians and Portuguese throughout the colonies.

After 1680, England ceased to be the main source of immigration. Thousands of refugees fled continental Europe to escape the war. Many have left their homes to escape the poverty caused by government oppression and absence-farming.

By 1690, the American population had grown to a quarter of a million. It has since doubled every 25 years, until it numbered more than 2.5 million in 1775.

Although the family could move from Massachusetts to Virginia or from South Carolina to Pennsylvania, without major adjustment, differences between individual colonies were noted. They were even more among the three regional groups of the colonies


New England in the northeast has mostly thin rock soil, relatively little flat land, and long winters, which makes it difficult to make money from farming. Starting from other pursuits, the New English exploited the water and set up mills and sawmills of grain. Good timber stands encouraged shipbuilding. Excellent ports promoted trade, and the sea became a source of great wealth. In Massachusetts, the cod industry itself quickly laid the foundation for prosperity.

Many Englishmen lived in the villages and towns around the ports, and some carried on some sort of trade or business. Common pasture and forests served the needs of citizens who worked near small farms. The compactness allowed for a village school, a village church, and a village or town hall, where citizens met to discuss matters of common interest.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony continued to expand trade. From the mid-17th century onwards, it flourished and Boston became one of America's largest ports.

Oak made of wood for ships; hulls, tall pines for spars and masts and pitch of ships extended from the northeast forests. By building their own vessels and shipping them to ports around the world, Massachusetts Bay Masters have laid the foundation for a commerce that will grow steadily. By the end of the colonial period, one-third of all British-flagged vessels had been built in New England. Fish, boat shops and wooden goods made it difficult to export.

New England carriers also soon discovered that rum and slaves were profitable commodities. One of the most enterprising – if harmless – trading practices of the time was the so-called "triangle trade." Traders and suppliers would buy slaves off the coast of Africa for rum from New England and then sell them in the West Indies, where they would buy molasses to bring home for sale to local rum producers.


Society in the middle colonies was far more diverse, more cosmopolitan and more tolerant than in New England. In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owe their initial success to William Penn.

Under his leadership, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. By 1685 there were nearly 9,000 inhabitants. The heart of the colony was Philadelphia, a city that would soon be known for its wide streets overgrown with trees, large brick and stone walls, and busy docks. At the end of the colonial period, almost a century later, 30,000 people lived there, representing many languages, beliefs and trades. Their talent for a successful business enterprise has made the city one of the successful centers of colonial America.

Although the Quakers dominated Philadelphia, elsewhere in Pennsylvania others were well represented. The Germans became the most skilled farmers of the colony. Home industries such as weaving, footwear, wardrobe and other crafts were also important.

Pennsylvania was also the main gateway to the New World for the Scots-Irish, who immigrated to the colony in the early 18th century. "Wooden and arrogant foreigners," as one Pennsylvania official called them, hated the English and were suspicious of the entire government. The Scotch-Irish tended to settle in a backward country, where they cleared the land and lived by hunting and keeping.

As much as people are in Pennsylvania, New York best exemplifies the polyglot nature of America. By 1646, the population along the Hudson River included the Dutch, French, Dance, Norwegians, Swedes, English, Scots, Irish, Germans, Poles, Bohe, Portuguese and Italians – the forerunners of the millions to come.

The Dutch continued to exert significant social and economic influence on the New York region long after the fall of New Holland and their integration into the British colonial system. Their gabled roofs of sharp grade have become a permanent part of city architecture, and their merchants have given Manhattan much of the original bustling, commercial atmosphere.


Opposite New England and the Middle Colonies were predominantly rural southern settlements: Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina, and Georgia.

By the late 17th century, the economic and social structure of Virginia and Maryland rested on large plantations and Jomean farmers. The tidal area seedlings, supported by slave labor, held most political power and the best land. They built great houses, adopted an aristocratic way of life and kept in touch as best they could with the world of culture abroad.

At the same time, Yomani farmers, who worked in smaller areas of the country, sat in national assemblies and found their way into political office. Their open independence was a constant warning to the plantation oligarchy not to give too much credit to the rights of free men.

Charleston of South Carolina became the leading port and trading center of the South. There, settlers quickly learned to combine agriculture and commerce, and the market became a major source of prosperity. Dense forests also produced revenue: wood, tar, and long-leaf pine resin provided some of the best boat-building materials in the world. It is not related to any crop, such as Virginia, North and South Carolina, which also produced and exported rice and indigo, a blue dye obtained from native plants, which was used to dye fabrics. By 1750, more than 100,000 people were living in the two colonies of North and South Carolina.

In most southern colonies, as elsewhere, population growth in the back country was of particular importance. German settlers and Scots-Irish, unwilling to live in the original tidal water settlements where English influence was strong, pushed inland. Those who could not secure fertile land along the coast, or who had exhausted the land they held, found abundant refuge in the west further west. Although their difficulties were enormous, restless settlers kept coming, and as early as the 1730s they poured out into the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia. Soon the interior was covered with farms.

Living on the outskirts of Indian country, frontier families built cabins, cleaned tractors in the desert and cultivated corn and wheat. The men wore leather made from the skin of deer or sheep, known as pumpkin skin; the women wore cloth dresses that swirled around the house. Their food consisted of game, wild turkey and fish. They had their own parties – great barbecues, dances, events for newly married couples, shooting matches and competitions in making quilts. Blankets still remain an American tradition today.


A significant factor deterring the emergence of a powerful aristocratic or aristocratic class in the colonies was the fact that anyone in the established colony could decide to find a new home on the border. Therefore, from time to time, dominant water levels, with the threat of mass evictions at the border, were required to liberalize political policies, land-grant requirements, and religious practices. This movement to the foothills was of great importance to the future of America.

Of equal importance to the future were the foundations of American education and culture established during the colonial period. Harvard College was founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The William and Mary College was established in Virginia at the end of the century. A few years later, the Collegiate School of Connecticut was founded, which would later become Yale College. But even more remarkable is the growth of the school system maintained by the state government. The Puritan emphasis on Scripture reading emphasized the importance of literacy.

In 1647, a colony in Massachusetts Bay enacted a "Satanic Deception Satan" law, requiring each city to have more than 50 families to set up a gymnasium (a Latin school that would prepare students for college). Shortly thereafter, all other New England colonies except Rhode Island followed suit.

The first settlers to New England brought their own small libraries and continued to import books from London. And since the 1680s, bookstore stores in Boston have been successfully engaged in works of classical literature, history, politics, philosophy, science, theology and capital letters. In 1639, the first printing house in the English colonies and the second in North America were set up at Harvard College.

The first school in Pennsylvania began in 1683. She taught reading, writing, and account management. Subsequently, each Quaker community has somehow provided basic learning for their children. Advanced training – in Classical Languages, History, and Literature – is offered at the Friends of the Public School, which still operates as the William Penn Charter School in Philadelphia today. School was free for the poor but parents who could be paid tuition.

In Philadelphia, many private, non-religious private schools taught languages, mathematics, and the natural sciences; there were also adult night schools. Women were not completely neglected, but their educational opportunities were limited to training in home-based activities. Private teachers taught the daughters of prosperous Philadelphia people French, music, dance, painting, singing, grammar, and sometimes bookkeeping.

In the 18th century, the intellectual and cultural development of Pennsylvania reflected largely the strong personalities of two men: James Logan and Benjamin Franklin. Logan was secretary of the colony, and it was young Franklin who found the latest scientific papers in his fine library. In 1745 Logan erected a building for his collection and gave the city a curtain and buildings and books.

Franklin contributed even more to the intellectual activity of Philadelphia. He formed a debate club that became a substitute for the American Philosophical Society. His efforts also led to the founding of a public academy that later evolved into the University of Pennsylvania. He was the main driver behind the founding of the subscription library, which he called "the mother of all North American subscription libraries."

In the southern colonies, wealthy planters and merchants imported private teachers from Ireland or Scotland to teach their children. The rest sent their children to school in England. With these other options, the upper levels in the drainage basin were not interested in supporting public education. In addition, the diffusion of farms and plantations made it difficult to form community colleges. There were several endowed free schools in Virginia; Syms School was founded in 1647 and Eaton School was founded in 1659.

The desire to learn, however, did not stop at the boundaries of established communities. The Scots-Irish, on the other hand, although living in primitive cabins, were staunch devotees of learning and made great efforts to attract learned ministers to their settlements.

Literary production in the colonies was largely confined to New England. The focus here was on religious topics. Sermons were the most common products of the press. The famous Puritan minister, Reverend Cotton Mather, has written about 400 works. His masterpiece, Magnalia Christi Americana, presented the theatrical history of New England. But the most popular single act of the day was Reverend Michael Wigglesworth's long song, "Day of Doom," which described the latest verdict as frightening.

1704 Cambridge, Massachusetts, started colonies & # 39; the first successful newspaper. By 1745, 22 newspapers were published in the colonies.

How can you limit learning more? The next section may contain that bit of wisdom that changes everything.

An important step in the establishment of the principle of freedom of the press took place in New York with the case of Johann Peter Zenger, whose New York Weekly Journal began in 1733 to oppose the government. Two years after the announcement, the colonial governor could no longer tolerate Zenger's satirical daggers, so he was jailed for accusing him of vicious slander. During his nine-month trial, Zenger continued to edit prison papers, sparking intense interest throughout the colonies. Andrew Hamilton, a prominent lawyer who defended Zenger, argued that the allegations Zenger had written off were true and therefore rude. The jury returned a verdict of not guilty and Zenger went free.

The boom of cities, fueled by fears that the devil lured society in search of world profits, produced a religious reaction in the 1730s that became known as the Great Awakening. Her inspiration came from two sources: George Whitefield, a Wesleyan revivalist who arrived from England in 1739, and Jonathan Edwards, who originally served at the Church of Congress in Northampton, Massachusetts.

Whitefield started a religious revival in Philadelphia and then moved to New England. It captivated audiences with up to 20,000 people at a time with Istrian displays, gestures and emotional oratory. Religious turmoil echoed throughout New England and the Middle Colonies as ministers left established churches to preach revival.

Among those influenced by Whitefield was Edwards, and the great awakening reached its peak in 1741 with his sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God." Edwards did not engage in theater but preached quietly, thoughtfully. He emphasized that established churches seek to deprive Christianity of its emotional content. His magnum opus, Freedom of Will (1754), sought to reconcile Calvinism with the Enlightenment.

The great awakening has led to evangelical denominations and a spirit of revival that continue to play a significant role in American religious and cultural life. This weakened the status of an established clergy and caused believers to rely on their own consciences. Perhaps most importantly, this led to the spread of sects and denominations, which in turn encouraged a general acceptance of the principle of religious tolerance.


At all stages of colonial development, a striking feature was the lack of controlling influence by the English government. All colonies except Georgia emerged as shareholder companies or as feudal landlords derived from charters granted by the Crown. The fact that the king transferred his immediate sovereignty over New World settlements to stock companies and owners does not, of course, mean that the colonists in America were not necessarily without external control. Under Virginia Company statutes, for example, all governmental authority was vested in the company itself. Still, the Crown expected the company to be domiciled in England. The people of Virginia, then, would have no more voice in their government than if the king himself had retained absolute rule.

For their part, the colonies never thought of themselves as being served. Instead, they generally considered themselves to be a community or a state, much like England itself, which only made little contact with the authorities in London. One way or another, the exclusive rule on the outside has disappeared. The colonists – the heirs to the tradition of the Englishman's long struggle for political freedom – incorporated the concepts of freedom into Virginia's first charter. Provided that the English colonists should have exercised all their freedoms, franchises and immunities "as if they had lived and been born within this our kingdom of England." They then enjoyed the benefits of Magna Carta and the common law. In 1618, the Virginia Company issued instructions to the appointed governor, stipulating that the free plantation residents would elect representatives to join the governor and the nominating council in passing ordinances for the benefit of the colony.

These measures proved to be some of the most selective throughout the colonial period. It has since been generally accepted that colonists have the right to participate in their own government. In most cases, the King, in giving future grants, provided in the charter that the free people of the colony should have a voice in the legislation relating to them. Thus, charters granted to the Calverts in Maryland, William Penn, Pennsylvania, owners in North and South Carolina and owners in New Jersey stipulated that legislation should be enacted with the "consent of the freemen."

In New England there was for many years even more complete self-government than in the other colonies. At Mayflower, the pilgrims adopted a government instrument called the "Mayflower Compact" to "merge into a political body of a civilian body for the sake of our better regulation and preservation … , decrees, acts, constitutions and offices … which will be considered most appropriate and appropriate for the common good of the colony …. "

Although there was no legal basis for the Pilgrims to establish a system of self-government, the action was not in dispute and, under the treaty, the Plymouth settlers were able for many years to conduct their own affairs without outside interference.

A similar situation developed at Massachusetts Bay, which was given the right to operate on its own. Thus, full authority rested in the hands of those residing in the colony. At first, a dozen or so original company members who came to America tried to rule autocratically. But other colonists soon sought a voice in public affairs and indicated that rejection would lead to mass migration.

Faced with this threat, company members relented and government control passed on to elected representatives. Subsequently, other New England colonies – such as Connecticut and Rhode Island – also succeeded in becoming self-governing, simply claiming to be outside any governmental authority and then setting up their own political system modeled on pilgrims in Plymouth.

In only two cases the provision of self-government was omitted. These were New York, which was assigned to Brother Charles II, Duke of York (later to become King James II); and Georgia, which has been assigned to a "guardians" group. In both cases, the governing provisions were short-lived, as the colonists demanded legislative representation so persistently that the authorities soon relented.

Eventually, most colonies became royal colonies, but in the mid-17th century the English were too distracted by the Civil War (1642-1649) and the Puritan community and the protectorate of Oliver Cromwell to begin effective colonial policy. After the restoration of Charles II and the Stuart Dynasty in 1660, England had more opportunities to attend colonial rule. However, even then it was inefficient and lacked a coherent plan, so the colonies were largely left to their own devices.

The distance afforded by the vast ocean also made it difficult to control the colonies. Added to this is the character of early American life itself. From land-constrained and populated cities, settlers came to a land of seemingly endless reach. On such a continent, natural conditions promoted tough individualism, because people were used to making their own decisions. Government penetrated deeply into the country, and conditions of anarchy were often prevalent at the border.

Nevertheless, the assumption of self-government in the colonies did not go completely unchallenged. In the 1670s, the Lords of Commerce and Plantation, a royal committee established to enforce the mercantile system in the colonies, moved to annul the Massachusetts Bay Charter because the colony resisted government economic policy. James II in 1685 approved a proposal to create New England domination and place colonies south of New Jersey under its jurisdiction, thereby tightening the control of the Crown over the entire region. The royal governor, Sir Edmund Andros, levied taxes by executive order, carried out a number of other harsh measures and imprisoned those who resisted.

When news of the Revolution of Famous (1688-1689) overthrowing James II reached Boston, the population rebelled and imprisoned Andros. Under the new charter, Massachusetts and Plymouth were first united in 1691 as the royal colony of Massachusetts Bay. Other colonies that came under New England domination quickly reestablished their previous governments.

The glorious revolution had other positive effects on the colonies. The Rights and Tolerance Act of 1689 affirmed freedom of worship for Christians and enforced restrictions on the crown. Equally important, the second Loktat on the government of John Locke (1690) presented a theory of government not based on divine right but on contract, and argued that people, endowed with natural rights to life, liberty and property, had the right to rebel when governments violated those natural rights.

Colonial politics in the early 18th century were reminiscent of English politics in the 17th. The glorious revolution claimed the supremacy of Parliament, but the colonial governors sought to exercise power in the colonies lost by the king in England. The colonial assemblies, aware of the events in England, tried to secure their "rights" and "freedoms". By the early 18th century, the colonial authorities had two significant powers similar to those of the English Parliament: the right to vote on taxes and expenditures and the right to initiate laws, not just at the suggestion of the governor.

Legislature used these rights to test the power of royal governors and to take other measures to expand their power and influence. Repeated clashes between the governor and the assembly have acted increasingly to awaken the colonists to a disagreement between American and English interests. In many cases the royal authorities did not understand the importance of what the colonial assemblies were doing and simply ignored them. However, these acts established precedent and principles and eventually became part of the "constitution" of the colonies.

In this way, the colonial authorities established the right to self-government. Over time, the center of colonial administration moved from London to the provincial capital.


France and the United Kingdom participated in several wars in Europe and the Caribbean in the 18th century. Although Britain provided them with certain advantages – especially in the Caribbean islands rich in sugar – the fighting was largely undecided, and France remained in a powerful position in North America at the beginning of the Seven Years War in 1754.

At that time, France established a strong connection with numerous Native American tribes in Canada and along the Great Lakes, took ownership of the Mississippi River and established a large crescent-shaped empire from Quebec to New Orleans by establishing a line of forts and trading post. Thus the British were confined to the narrow belt east of the Appalachian Mountains. The French threatened not only the British Empire, but also the American colonists themselves, because, holding on to the Mississippi Valley, France could limit their spread to the west.

The armed conflict occurred in 1754 in Fort Duquesne, the site of what is now Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, between a group of French monks and Virginia soldiers under the command of 22-year-old George Washington, a planner and surveyor from Virginia.

In London, the Trade Committee tried to tackle the conflict by convening meetings in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland and New England colonies. From July 19 to 10, the Congress in Albany, as it is learned, met with the Iroquois in Albany, New York, to improve relations with them and ensure their loyalty to the British.

The envoys also declared the Union of the American Colonies "absolutely necessary for their preservation" and adopted the Albany Union Plan. Drafted by Benjamin Franklin, the plan provided for the president appointed by the king to act with a large council of delegates elected by the assemblies, with each colony being represented in proportion to its financial contributions to the general coffers. This body would be in charge of defense, relations in India, and trade and settlement of the west, as well as having the power to collect taxes. But none of the colonies accepted Franklin's plan, because none wanted to surrender neither the power of taxation nor control over the development of Western countries to central government.

England's superior strategic position and its competent leadership ultimately brought victory in seven years; War, just a modest part fought in the Western Hemisphere.

With the Peace of Paris, signed in 1763, France ceded all of Canada, the Great Lakes, and the upper Mississippi Valley to the British. The dream of the French Empire in North America was over. Having triumphed over France, Britain was now forced to face a problem it had so far neglected – the administration of its empire. It was crucial for London to organize its now enormous estate to facilitate defense, reconcile the differing interests of different territories and peoples, and more evenly distribute the costs of the imperial administration.

In North America alone did the British territories more than double. The vast expanse of Canada and the territory between the Mississippi River and Mount Alegni, an empire itself, was added to the narrow strip along the Atlantic coast. The population, mostly Protestant and English, now includes Quebec Catholics, and a large number of partially Christianized Indians. The defense and administration of the new territories, as well as the old ones, would require huge sums of money and increase staff. The old colonial system was clearly inappropriate for these tasks.


In 1692, a group of adolescents in Salem Village, Massachusetts, became subjected to unusual limbs after hearing stories told by a Western slave. When questioned, they accused several women of being witches who tortured them. Citizens were appalled, but not surprised: the belief in witchcraft was widespread in 17th-century America and Europe.

What happened next – albeit an isolated event in American history – provides a vivid window into the social and psychological world of Puritan New England. City officials convened the court to hear allegations of witchcraft and quickly condemned and executed the Bridget Bishop Tavern. Within a month, five more women were convicted and hanged.

However, the hysteria grew, in large part because the court allowed witnesses to testify that they saw the accused as ghosts or in sight. By their nature, such "spectral evidence" was particularly dangerous, since they could neither be verified nor subjected to objective examination. By the fall of 1692, more than 20 victims had been executed, including several men, and more than 100 others had been imprisoned – among them some of the city's most prominent citizens. But now the hysteria has threatened to extend beyond Salem, and ministers across the colony have called for an end to the trial. The governor of the colony agreed and dismissed the court. Those who are still in jail are later released or given a waiver.

The Salem witch trials have long fascinated Americans. On a psychological level, most historians agree that the village of Salem in 1692 was overpowered by a kind of public hysteria, fueled by a true belief in the existence of witchcraft. They point out that while some of the girls may have acted, many responsible adults have also gotten into a frenzy.

But a closer analysis of the identities of the accused and the accused is still revealed. Village Salem, like much of what was then colonial New England, was undergoing an economic and political transition from a largely agrarian community dominated by Puritans to a more commercial, secular society. Many of the accusers were representatives of the traditional agricultural and church-related lifestyle, while a number of accused witches belonged to a growing commercial class of small traders and merchants. Salem's obscure struggle for social and political power between older traditional groups and the more recent commercial class has been echoed in communities throughout American history. But it took a bizarre and deadly turn when citizens were swallowed by the belief that the devil was free in their homes.

The Salem Witch Trials also serve as a dramatic parable of the deadly consequences of making sensational but false accusations. Indeed, a frequent term in political debate for making false accusations against a large number of people is "witch hunt."

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